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【解析版】2018年高考北京卷英语试题

资料类别: 英语/试题

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所属地区: 北京

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绝密★启用前 
2018年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试
英 语(北京卷)
(本试卷共14页,共120分。考试时长100分钟。)
考生务必将答案答在答题卡上,在试卷上作答无效。
考试结束后,将本试卷和答题卡一并交回。
第一部分:知识运用
第一节 单项填空
从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
例: It’s so nice to hear from her again. _________, we last met more than thirty years ago.
A. What’s more                        B. That’s to say
C. In other words                        D. Believe it or not
答案是D。
1. —Hi, I’m Peter. Are you new here? I haven’t seen you around?
—Hello, Peter. I’m Bob. I just _________ on Monday.
A. start    B. have started    C. started    D. had started
【答案】C
【解析】考查时态。句意:——嗨,我是彼得。你是新来的吗?我没有在附近见过你。——你好,彼得。我是鲍勃。我周一刚刚开始住在这儿。根据两人谈话内容可知,Bob现在在这儿,他开始(start)住在这儿是发生在周一的事情,周一是一个过去的时间,故该句应用一般过去时态,C选项正确。
点睛:一般过去时表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态或过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。一般过去时常与表示过去的时间状语或从句连用,如:yesterday,last week,in the past,in 2017,once,a few days ago等。
2. _________ we don’t stop climate change, many animals and plants in the world will be gone.
A. Although    B. While    C. If    D. Until
【答案】C

点睛:条件状语从句通常由引导词if或unless引导。条件是指某一件事情实现之后(状语从句中的动作),其它事情(主句中的动作)才能发生,通常译作“假如”。
3. _________ along the old Silk Road is an interesting and rewarding experience
A. Travel    B. Traveling    C. Having traveled    D. Traveled
【答案】B
【解析】考查动名词。句意:沿着丝绸之路旅行是一次既有趣又有益的经历。“____ along the old Silk Road”做主语,要用动名词,故B选项正确。
点睛:动名词是动词-ing形式的一种,兼有动词和名词特征。在句子中可以作主语、宾语、表语、定语。
4. Susan had quit her well-paid job and _________ as a volunteer in the neighborhood when I visited her last year.
A. is working    B. was working    C. has worked    D. had worked
【答案】B
【解析】考查时态。句意:Susan已经辞去了高薪的工作。去年当我探望她的时候,她正在一个社区里做志愿者。Susan辞职发生在她当志愿者之前,had quit是过去完成时态,过去完成时态通俗的说就是“过去的过去”,且结合时间状语when I visited her last year可知,Susan做志愿者是过去的某个时间段发生的情况,故该空应用过去进行时态。B选项正确。
点睛:过去进行时表示在过去某一时间段或某一段时间内正在发生或进行的动作或状态。
5. She and her family bicycle to work, _________ helps them keep fit.
A. which    B. who    C. as    D. that
【答案】A

点睛:非限制性定语从句即可修饰主句的一部分,也可以修饰整个主句。其引导词的选择和限制性定语从句的判断规则一致,即:第一、找准先行词;第二、看先行词在定语从句中所作的成分。需要注意的是,that不能引导非限制性定语从句。
6. During the Mid-Autumn Festival, family members often gather together _________ a meal, admire the moon and enjoy moon cakes.
A. share    B. to share    C. having shared    D. shared
【答案】B
【解析】考查非谓语动词。句意:在中秋节期间,家人们通常会聚在一起吃饭,赏月,品尝月饼。gather是谓语动词,“_________ a meal, admire the moon and enjoy moon cakes”是状语,家人聚在一起的目的是吃饭,赏月,品尝月饼,表目的用动词不定式,故B选项正确。
点睛:动词不定式可以做主语,状语,定语,宾语,表语等。动词不定式做目的状语时,可以置于主句之前也可以置于主句之后,通常译为“为了”。
7. China’s high-speed railways _________ from 9,000 to 25,000 kilometers in the past few years.
A. are growing    B. have grown    C. will grow    D. had grown
【答案】B
【解析】考查时态。句意:在过去的几年里,中国的高速铁路已经从9,000公里增长到25,000公里。该句时间状语为in the past few years。中国高速铁路的增长是从过去一直到现在几年里的情况,故该句应用现在完成时态。B选项正确。
点睛:现在完成时可以表示过去的事情对现在的影响,也可以表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的。常见的时间状语有:since + 时间点/从句,for two months,so far,recently,in the past/last few days等。
8. In any unsafe situation, simply _________ the button and a highly-trained agent will get you the help you need.
A. press    B. to press    C. pressing    D. pressed
【答案】A
【解析】考查祈使句。句意:在任何不安全的情况下,仅仅摁一下这个按钮,一个训练有素的特工就会使你得到你需要的帮助。and是连词,连接并列结构,and后面是一个句子,那么,前面也应是句子,选项中只有动词原形可以构成祈使句,其余的都是非谓语动词,无法构成句子。故A选项正确。
点睛:祈使句+and/or+陈述句是一种常见结构。当前后两部分间为承接关系时,用and;前后意思为相反关系时,用or。该句式中的陈述句部分常用一般将来时态。
9. A rescue worker risked his life saving two tourists who _________ in the mountains for two days.
A. are trapping    B. have been trapped    C. were trapping    D. had been trapped
【答案】D
【解析】考查语态和时态。句意:一个救援人员冒着生命危险挽救了两个被困在山里两天的旅游者。“who ___ in the mountains for two days”是定语从句,修饰two tourists,two tourists和trap之间是被动关系,该空应用被动语态。由risked可知,营救人员救游客是过去的事情,被困两天发生在营救人员救了他们之前,即“过去的过去”,该空应用过去完成时态。综上,D选项正确。
点睛:过去完成时表示过去某一时间或动作以前已经发生或完成了的动作,即“过去的过去”,其表达形式为had done,被动语态的表达形式为had been done。
10. Ordinary soap, _________ correctly, can deal with bacteria effectively.
A. used    B. to use    C. using    D. use
【答案】A
【解析】考查非谓语动词。句意:如果正确使用的话,普通的肥皂可以有效地处理细菌。Ordinary soap can deal with bacterial effectively是主句,_________ correctly是条件状语,修饰ordinary soap,ordinary soap和use之间是被动关系,故要用过去分词,A选项正确。
点睛:过去分词所表示的一个含义就是“被动”。
11. Without his support, we wouldn’t be _________ we are now.
A. how    B. when    C. where    D. why
【答案】C
【解析】考查名词性从句。句意:没有他的支持,我们是不会在现在这个位置的。how表方式,when表时间,where表地点,why表原因。“_________ we are now”是表语从句,结合句子的意思可知,该处指我们所处的位置,故该从句应用where引导。C选项正确。
点睛:表语从句是指一个句子充当表语,通俗的说就是系动词be后面接一个句子。连接表语从句的连接词有that,what,who,when,where,which,why,whether,how等。
12. In today’s information age, the loss of data _________ cause serious problems for a company.
A. need    B. should    C. can    D. must
【答案】C
【解析】考查情态动词。句意:在今天的信息时代,数据的丢失有时会对一个公司造成严重的问题。数据丢失造成严重问题是客观上会发生的情况,即“客观可能性”,故该空应用情态动词can。C选项正确。其余情态动词均没有该用法。need需要;should应该,竟然;must必须,肯定。
点睛:can的基本用法:1. (表示能力、功能)能,会;2. (表示推测)可能,可能会;3.(表示允许,请求)可以;4.(表示客观可能性)有时会。
13. They might have found a better hotel if they _________ a few more kilometers.
A. drove    B. would drive    C. were to drive    D. had driven
【答案】D
【解析】考查虚拟语气。句意:如果他们多开几公里的话,他们也许会找到一个更好的旅馆。由“they might have found a better hotel”可知,该句是表示对过去的虚拟。if ____ a few more kilometers是条件句部分,表示对过去的虚拟,条件句部分要用过去完成时态,故D选项正确。
点睛:1. 表示对现在的虚拟:if条件句用一般过去时,主句用would/might/could/should+do;2. 表示对过去的虚拟:if条件句用过去完成时,主句用would/might/could/should+have done;3. 表示对将来的虚拟:if条件句用were to do/should do/一般过去时,主句用would/might/could/should+do。
14. —Good morning, Mr. Lee’s office.
—Good morning. I’d like to make an appointment _________ next Wednesday afternoon.
A. for    B. on    C. in    D. at
【答案】A
【解析】考查介词。句意:——早上好,Lee先生办公室。——早上好。我想预约下周三下午(和Mr. Lee见面)。make an appointment for意为“为……预约”,是固定搭配,故A选项正确。
点睛:make an appointment with sb.和某人预约;make an appointment for为……预约。
15. This is _________ my father has taught me—to always face difficulties and hope for the best.
A. how    B. which    C. that    D. what
【答案】D
【解析】考查名词性从句。句意:这是我父亲教我的——总是要面对困难,抱最大的希望。“_________ my father has taught me”是表语从句,该空在从句中做teach的宾语,且表示“父亲教我的道理”,故该从句应用what引导。D选项正确。引导名词性从句时,how表方式,意为“如何”;which意为“哪一个”,that在只起引导从句的作用,不做成分。
点睛:what是常见的名词性从句引导词之一,它除了引导从句作用之外,还在从句中做主语,宾语,表语或者定语。根据不同的语境,what可以表示不同的意思,例如“……的东西或事情”,“……的人或样子”等。
第二节 完形填空
阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
The Homeless Hero
For many, finding an unattended wallet filled with £400 in cash would be a source(来源)of temptation(诱惑). But the ___16___ would no doubt be greater if you were living on the streets with little food and money. All of this makes the actions of the homeless Tom Smith ____17____ more remarkable.
After spotting a ___18___ on the front seat inside a parked car with its window down, he stood guard in the rain for about two hours waiting for the ____19____ to return.
After hours in the cold and wet, he ____20____  inside and pulled the wallet out hoping to find some ID so he could contact(联系)the driver, only to ____21____ it contained £400 in notes, with another £50 in spare change beside it.
He then took the wallet to a nearby police station after ____22____ a note behind to let the owner know it was safe. When the car’s owner John Anderson and his colleague Carol Lawrence returned to the car—which was itself worth £35, 000—in Glasgow city centre, they were ____23____ to find two policemen standing next to it. The policemen told them what Mr. Smith did and that the wallet was ____24____.
The pair were later able to thank Mr. Smith for his ____25____.
Mr. Anderson said:"I couldn’t believe that the guy never took a penny. To think he is sleeping on the streets tonight ____26____ he could have stolen the money and paid for a place to stay in. This guy has nothing and 
____27____ he didn’t take the wallet for himself;he thought about others ____28____. It’s unbelievable. It just proves there are ___29___ guys out there."
Mr. Smith’s act ____30____ much of the public’s attention. He also won praise from social media users after Mr. Anderson ____31____ about the act of kindness on Facebook.
Now Mr. Anderson has set up an online campaign to ____32____ money for Mr. Smith and other homeless people in the area, which by yesterday had received £8,000. "I think the faith that everyone has shown ____33____ him has touched him. People have been approaching him in the street; he’s had job ____34____ and all sorts," Mr. Anderson commented.
For Mr. Smith, this is a possible life-changing ____35____. The story once again tells us that one good turn deserves another.
16. A. hope    B. aim    C. urge    D. effort
17. A. still    B. even    C. ever    D. once
18. A. wallet    B. bag    C. box    D. parcel
19. A. partner    B. colleague    C. owner    D. policeman
20. A. turned    B. hid    C. stepped    D. reached
21. A. discover    B. collect    C. check    D. believe
22. A. taking    B. leaving    C. reading    D. writing
23. A. satisfied    B. excited    C. amused    D. shocked
24. A. safe    B. missing    C. found    D. seen
25. A. service    B. support    C. kindness    D. encouragement
26. A. when    B. if    C. where    D. because
27. A. rather    B. yet    C. already    D. just
28. A. too    B. though    C. again    D. instead
29. A. honest    B. polite    C. rich    D. generous
30. A. gave    B. paid    C. cast    D. drew
31. A. learned    B. posted    C. cared    D. heard
32. A. borrow    B. raise    C. save    D. earn
33. A. of    B. at    C. for    D. in
34. A. details    B. changes    C. offers    D. applications
35. A. lesson    B. adventure    C. chance    D. challenge
【答案】16. C    17. B    18. A    19. C    20. D    21. A    22. B    23. D    24. A    25. C    26. A    27. B    28. D    29. A    30. D    31. B    32. B    33. D    34. C    35. C
【解析】这是一篇夹叙夹议类文章。文章讲述了流浪汉Tom发现一辆车窗开着的汽车前座上有一个钱包。Tom冒雨等了数个小时,在查找不到车主身份的情况下将钱包交到了警察局。钱包的主人Mr. Anderson在得知一切后,将Tom的善举发布到了Facebook上。Tom的行为引发了人们的好评和帮助。这件事印证了一句俗语:善有善报。
16. 考查名词词义辨析。A. hope希望;B. aim目标;C. urge强烈的欲望,冲动;D. effort努力。上一句提到,对很多人来说,一个装有£400无人看管的钱包是一种诱惑(它诱惑着人们将其据为己有)。结合该句中的比较级greater可知,对于一个无家可归的人来说,这样的一个钱包是一个更大的诱惑,将其据为己有的欲望会更大。该空对应上一句中的“a source(来源)of temptation(诱惑)”,C选项正确。
17. 考查副词词义辨析。A. still仍然;B. even更加,愈发,甚至;C. ever曾经;D. once曾经,一度。所有这一切使得流浪汉Tom Smith的行为更加的不同寻常。even在该句中修饰比较级more remarkable。B选项正确。
18. 考查名词词义辨析。A. wallet钱包;B. bag包;C. box盒子,箱子;D. parcel包裹,包袱。由第三段中的After hours in the cold and wet, he    20      inside and pulled the wallet out hoping to find some ID可知,Tom Smith发现一辆汽车的前排座上有一个钱包。当时这辆车停在那儿,窗户摇了下来。A选项正确。
19. 考查名词词义辨析。A. partner同伴,伙伴;B. colleague同事;C. owner主人;D. policeman警察。Tom冒雨等待车主回来。C选项正确。
20. 考查动词词义辨析。A. turned转动;B. hid藏,隐藏;C. stepped迈步,举步;D. reached伸手去拿,到达。由后面的pulled the wallet out可知,在雨里等了数个小时后,Tom将手伸进车窗,将钱包拿了出来。D选项正确。
21. 考查动词词义辨析。A. discover发现;B. collect搜集;C. check核对,检查;D. believe相信。Tom将钱包拿出来企图找到一些身份证明,这样他就能联系司机了,结果他却发现钱包里装着£400的纸币和£50的零钱。A选项正确。
22. 考查动词词义辨析。A. taking带走;B. leaving留下,落下,离开;C. reading读;D. writing写。他拿着钱包去了附近的警察局,在车上留下了一张便条,其目的是让车主知道他的钱包是安全的。B选项正确。
23. 考查形容词词义辨析。A. satisfied满意的;B. excited兴奋的;C. amused被逗乐的;D. shocked震惊的。当车主返回时,发现自己的车边有警察,应该感到很惊讶。故D选项正确。
24. 考查形容词/动词词义辨析。A. safe安全的;B. missing不见的,丢失的;C. found发现,找到;D. seen看见。由该段开头可知,Tom将钱包带去了警察局,因此该处警察告诉John他的钱包是安全的。A选项正确。
25. 考查名词词义辨析。A. service服务;B. support支持;C. kindness善意,善良;D. encouragement鼓励。Tom将钱包交给警察,没有据为己有,这是一种善举。故C选项正确。
26. 考查状语从句引导词。A. when在……情况下,既然;B. if如果;C. where表地点;D. because因为。在Tom本来可以偷了钱去支付一个可以睡觉的地方的情况下,他仍然选择了露宿街头(没有偷钱)。所以Mr. Anderson对Tom的行为感到很惊讶。A选项正确。
27. 考查副词词义辨析。A. rather相当;B. yet但是;C. already已经;D. just仅仅。Tom什么都没有,但是他没有拿走钱包。前后两句话之间是转折关系,故B选项正确。
28. 考查副词词义辨析。A. too也;B. though但是;C. again再,又;D. instead代替。Tom没有拿走钱包,他考虑的是别人,没有考虑自己。D选项正确。
29. 考查形容词词义辨析。A. honest诚实的;B. polite礼貌的;C. rich富有的;D. generous慷慨的。Tom没有拿走钱包,而是把它交到了警察局,这是一种诚实的行为。A选项正确。
30. 考查动词词义辨析。A. gave给;B. paid支付;C. cast投掷,投射;D. drew吸引。Tom的行为吸引了公众的关注。D选项正确。
31. 考查动词词义辨析。A. learned学习,学会;B. posted发布,张贴;C. cared关心,在意;D. heard听到。由后面的Facebook(一个社交网站)可知,在Mr. Anderson将Tom的善举发布到Facebook上之后,Tom赢得了社交媒体使用者的赞扬。B选项正确。
32. 考查动词词义辨析。A. borrow借;B. raise筹集;C. save挽救,节省;D. earn挣(钱)。Mr. Anderson在网上发起一个运动来为Tom和其他无家可归的人筹钱。B选项正确。
33. 考查介词。大家向Tom表示出的信任触动了Tom。faith意为“信任,相信”,常和介词in搭配,意为“对……的信任,相信……”,故D选项正确。
34. 考查名词词义辨析。A. details细节;B. changes改变;C. offers提供(物),给予(物),提议;D. applications应用,申请。该句应指Tom得到了人们的帮助,人们为他提供工作和其他的东西。C选项正确。
35. 考查名词词义辨析。A. lesson课;B. adventure冒险;C. chance机会;D. challenge挑战。这件事对于流浪汉Tom来说是一个可以改变终生的机会。C选项正确。
点睛:1. 完形填空解题技巧之一:上下联系—寻信息。完形填空中经常会出现前面的信息为后面的空白提供暗示,而后面的信息有可能是前面空白的答案的情况。这时,要联系上下文,寻求信息以确定答案。第18小题,考生可以根据前两句中的“wallet”和第三段中的“wallet”来确定答案。
2. 完形填空解题技巧二:左顾右盼—找搭配。英语中,有些单词词义相近,而句型结构及跟其他词的搭配却截然不同。考生不能单从词义上去辨析,而应审查空白前后的名词、动词、介词或非谓语动词等,比较与各选项的搭配关系,然后确定答案。在33题中,考生可以根据该空前的faith确定搭配关系。如果考生从show来入手,那么就很困难了。
第二部分:阅读理解
第一节
阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
A
My First Marathon(马拉松)
A month before my first marathon, one of my ankles was injured and this meant not running for two weeks, leaving me only two weeks to train. Yet, I was determined to go ahead.
I remember back to my 7th year in school. In my first P.E. class, the teacher required us to run laps and then hit a softball. I didn’t do either well. He later informed me that I was "not athletic".
The idea that I was "not athletic" stuck with me for years. When I started running in my 30s, I realized running was a battle against myself, not about competition or whether or not I was athletic. It was all about the battle against my own body and mind. A test of wills!
The night before my marathon, I dreamt that I couldn’t even find the finish line. I woke up sweating and nervous, but ready to prove something to myself.
Shortly after crossing the start line, my shoe laces(鞋带) became untied. So I stopped to readjust. Not the start I wanted!
At mile 3, I passed a sign: "GO FOR IT, RUNNERS!"
By mile 17, I became out of breath and the once injured ankle hurt badly. Despite the pain, I stayed the course walking a bit and then running again.
By mile 21, I was starving!
As I approached mile 23, I could see my wife waving a sign. She is my biggest fan. She never minded the alarm clock sounding at 4 a.m. or questioned my expenses on running.
I was one of the final runners to finish. But I finished! And I got a medal. In fact, I got the same medal as the one that the guy who came in first place had.
Determined to be myself, move forward, free of shame and worldly labels(世俗标签), I can now call myself a "marathon winner".
36. A month before the marathon, the author ____________.
A. was well trained    B. felt scared
C. made up his mind to run    D. lost hope
37. Why did the author mention the P.E. class in his 7th year?
A. To acknowledge the support of his teacher.
B. To amuse the readers with a funny story.
C. To show he was not talented in sports.
D. To share a precious memory.
38. How was the author’s first marathon?
A. He made it.    B. He quit halfway.
C. He got the first prize.    D. He walked to the end.
39. What does the story mainly tell us?
A. A man owes his success to his family support.
B. A winner is one with a great effort of will.
C. Failure is the mother of success.
D. One is never too old to learn.
【答案】36. C    37. C    38. A    39. B
【解析】本文为一篇记叙文。讲述了自己第一次跑马拉松,凭借自己的意志力成功跑完全程的励志故事。
36. 细节理解题。根据文章第一段最后一句Yet, I was determined to go ahead.可知,马拉松赛前一个月尽管作者脚踝受伤使得训练时间缩短,但作者仍下定决心参赛。故选C。
37. 细节理解题。根据文章第二段I didn’t do either well. He later informed me that I was "not athletic"可知,作者提到7年级的事情是为了证明自己真的没有运动天赋。故选C。
38. 细节理解题。根据文章第10段I was one of the final runners to finish. But I finished! And I got a medal. In fact, I got the same medal as the one that the guy who came in first place had.可知,作者坚持到了最后,而且得到了一块奖牌,虽然不是第一名,由此可见他成功地跑完了马拉松。故选A。
39. 主旨大意题。通读全文可知,作者在讲述自己跑马拉松的经历,再根据最后一段Determined to be myself, move forward, free of shame and worldly labels(世俗标签), I can now call myself a "marathon winner".可知,作者成功跑完马拉松源于自己的意志。故选B。
点睛:文章主题和中心思想的阐述往往需要大量细节信息的支持,这些细节对于理解全文内容至关重要,同时也是归纳和概括文章中心思想的基础。命题人往往会要求考生根据不同的要求阅读文章,以获得某些特定的信息,或准确地寻求所需的细节,并对细节进行直接或间接辨认和理解。文章细节的理解可以细化为:(1)一一对应型。(2)语言转述型。(3)语意理解型。(4)是非辨别型。(5)事实排序型。
此题中的前三题为细节理解题。细节理解题首先要根据题干准确定位信息句,其次要对信息句进行准确的理解和判断,如第一题为转述型,I was determined to go ahead即made up his mind to run。第二题为语义理解题。根据文章第二段的信息In my first P.E. class, the teacher required us to run laps and then hit a softball. I didn’t do either well.可知,作者没有运动天赋。而第三题则为转述型,根据信息句I was one of the final runners to finish. But I finished! And I got a medal. In fact, I got the same medal as the one that the guy who came in first place had.可知,作者跑完了马拉松,正好与made it 意义相同。
B
Find Your Adventure at the Space and Aviation(航空) Center
If you’re looking for a unique adventure, the Space and Aviation Center (SAC) is the place to be. The Center offers programs designed to challenge and inspire with hands-on tasks and lots of fun.
More than 750,000 have graduated from SAC, with many seeking employment in engineering, aviation, education, medicine and a wide variety of other professions. They come to camp, wanting to know what it is like to be an astronaut or a pilot, and they leave with real-world applications for what they’re studying in the classroom.
For the trainees, the programs also offer a great way to earn merit badges(荣誉徽章). At Space Camp, trainees can earn their Space Exploration badge as they build and fire model rockets, learn about space tasks and try simulated(模拟) flying to space with the crew from all over the world. The Aviation Challenge program gives trainees the chance to earn their Aviation badge. They learn the principles of flight and test their operating skills in the cockpit(驾驶舱) of a variety of flight simulators. Trainees also get a good start on their Wilderness Survival badge as they learn about water- and land-survival through designed tasks and their search and rescue of "downed" pilot.
With all the programs, teamwork is key as trainees learn the importance of leadership and being part of a bigger task.
All this fun is available for ages 9 to 18. Families can enjoy the experience together, too, with Family Camp programs for families with children as young as 7.
Stay an hour or stay a week — there is something here for everyone!
For more details, please visit us online at www.oursac.com.
40. Why do people come to SAC?
A. To experience adventures.
B. To look for jobs in aviation.
C. To get a degree in engineering.
D. To learn more about medicine.
41. To earn a Space Exploration badge, a trainee needs to           .
A. fly to space
B. get an Aviation badge first
C. study the principles of flight
D. build and fire model rockets
42. What is the most important for trainees?
A. Leadership.    B. Team spirit.
C. Task planning.    D. Survival skills.
【答案】40. A    41. D    42. B
【解析】本文为说明文。文章主要介绍了宇航中心培训项目的相关信息,包括训练内容、受训者参加的条件和益处等。
40. 细节理解题。根据文章第一段第一句If you’re looking for a unique adventure, the Space and Aviation Center (SAC) is the place to be.可知,人们来SAC是为了寻找与众不同的冒险体验,故选A。
41. 细节理解题。根据文章第三段At Space Camp, trainees can earn their Space Exploration badge as they build and fire model rockets, learn about space tasks and try simulated(模拟) flying to space with the crew from all over the world.可知,要想获得太空探险徽章需要建造和发射火箭模型,学习空间任务,尝试与飞行员模拟太空飞行等,故选D。
42. 细节理解题。根据文章第四段With all the programs, teamwork is key as trainees learn the importance of leadership and being part of a bigger task.可知,对于受训者来说,团队合作是关键,故团队精神是最重要的,故选B。
点睛:文章主题和中心思想的阐述往往需要大量细节信息的支持,这些细节对于理解全文内容至关重要,同时也是归纳和概括文章中心思想的基础。命题人往往会要求考生根据不同的要求阅读文章,以获得某些特定的信息,或准确地寻求所需的细节,并对细节进行直接或间接辨认和理解。文章细节的理解可以细化为:(1)一一对应型。(2)语言转述型。(3)语意理解型。(4)是非辨别型。(5)事实排序型。
此题中的三题都是细节理解题。解题关键是首先要根据题干准确定位信息句,其次要对信息句进行准确的理解和判断,此题的三小题均为一一对应型,只要找准信息句,一一对应即可得出答案。而第二小题也可以用排除法,如文章第三段At Space Camp, trainees can earn their Space Exploration badge as they build and fire model rockets, learn about space tasks and try simulated(模拟) flying to space with the crew from all over the world.提到,要想获得太空探险徽章需要建造和发射火箭模型,学习空间任务,尝试与飞行员模拟太空飞行等,选项ABC都是歪曲事实,所以只有D正确。
C
Plastic-Eating Worms
Humans produce more than 300 million tons of plastic every year. Almost half of that winds up in landfills(垃圾填埋场), and up to 12 million tons pollute the oceans. So far there is no effective way to get rid of it, but a new study suggests an answer may lie in the stomachs of some hungry worms. 
Researchers in Spain and England recently found that the worms of the greater wax moth can break down polyethylene, which accounts for 40% of plastics. The team left 100 wax worms on a commercial polyethylene shopping bag for 12 hours, and the worms consumed and broke down about 92 milligrams, or almost 3% of it. To confirm that the worms’ chewing alone was not responsible for the polyethylene breakdown, the researchers made some worms into paste(糊状物) and applied it to plastic films. 14 hours later the films had lost 13% of their mass — apparently broken down by enzymes (酶) from the worms’ stomachs. Their findings were published in Current Biology in 2017.
Federica Bertocchini, co-author of the study, says the worms’ ability to break down their everyday food — beeswax — also allows them to break down plastic. "Wax is a complex mixture, but the basic bond in polyethylene, the carbon-carbon bond, is there as well, "she explains, "The wax worm evolved a method or system to break this bond. "
Jennifer DeBruyn, a microbiologist at the University of Tennessee, who was not involved in the study, says it is not surprising that such worms can break down polyethylene. But compared with previous studies, she finds the speed of breaking down in this one exciting. The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to identify the cause of the breakdown. Is it an enzyme produced by the worm itself or by its gut microbes(肠道微生物)?
Bertocchini agrees and hopes her team’s findings might one day help employ the enzyme to break down plastics in landfills. But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process — not simply "millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic."
43. What can we learn about the worms in the study?
A. They take plastics as their everyday food.
B. They are newly evolved creatures.
C. They can consume plastics.
D. They wind up in landfills.
44. According to Jennifer DeBruyn, the next step of the study is to            .
A. identify other means of the breakdown
B. find out the source of the enzyme
C. confirm the research findings
D. increase the breakdown speed
45. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that the chemical might            .
A. help to raise worms
B. help make plastic bags
C. be used to clean the oceans
D. be produced in factories in future
46. What is the main purpose of the passage?
A. To explain a study method on worms.
B. To introduce the diet of a special worm.
C. To present a way to break down plastics.
D. To propose new means to keep eco-balance.
【答案】43. C    44. B    45. D    46. C
【解析】本文为说明文。文章介绍了一种吃塑料的虫子大蜡螟,它胃中的酶能够降解塑料,这为解决塑料污染提供了新的途径。
43. 细节理解题。根据文章第三段Federica Bertocchini, co-author of the study, says the worms’ ability to break down their everyday food — beeswax — also allows them to break down plastic.可知,研究结果发现,蠕虫分解日常食物的能力让它们可以分解塑料,也就是说它们可以消费塑料。故选C。
44. 细节理解题。根据文章第四段The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to identify the cause of the breakdown. Is it an enzyme produced by the worm itself or by its gut microbes(肠道微生物)?可知,下一步研究是辨清分解的原因,查明这种酶来源于哪里,是虫子自己产生的还是它肠道里的微生物产生的。故选B。
45. 推理判断题。根据文章最后一段But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process — not simply "millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic."可以推断出,Bertocchini希望这种化学物质将来能在工业生产中使用,而不是仅仅依靠蠕虫来分解塑料。故选D。
46. 写作意图题。根据文章第一段最后一句So far there is no effective way to get rid of it, but a new study suggests an answer may lie in the stomachs of some hungry worms.可知,有一种新的方法被用于分解塑料。再根据最后一段最后一句But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process — not simply "millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic."可知,Bertocchini希望将这种方法推广到工业中。由此可以推知写作意图为介绍一种分解塑料的方法。故选C。
点睛:根据不同文体,推断目的意图。不同的文章可能有不同的写作目的,通常作者的写作目的有以下三种:1) to entertain readers(娱乐读者,让人发笑),常见于故事类的文章。2) to persuade readers(说服读者接受某种观点),常见于广告类的文章。3) to inform readers(告知读者某些信息),多见于科普类﹑新闻报道类﹑文化类或社会类的文章。阅读时要善于根据文章的文体来学会推断作者的情感态度和目的。本题的最后一题为写作意图题。文章为说明文,主要介绍了一项新的研究发现---蠕虫可以分解塑料。因此可以推着写作意图是告知、告诉读者一种新的分解塑料的方法。
D
Preparing Cities for Robot Cars
The possibility of self-driving robot cars has often seemed like a futurist’s dream, years away from materializing in the real world. Well, the future is apparently now. The California Department of Motor Vehicles began giving permits in April for companies to test truly self-driving cars on public roads. The state also cleared the way for companies to sell or rent out self-driving cars, and for companies to operate driverless taxi services. California, it should be noted, isn’t leading the way here. Companies have been testing their vehicles in cities across the country. It’s hard to predict when driverless cars will be everywhere on our roads. But however long it takes, the technology has the potential to change our transportation systems and our cities, for better or for worse, depending on how the transformation is regulated.
While much of the debate so far has been focused on the safety of driverless cars(and rightfully so), policymakers also should be talking about how self-driving vehicles can help reduce traffic jams, cut emissions(排放) and offer more convenient, affordable mobility options. The arrival of driverless vehicles is a chance to make sure that those vehicles are environmentally friendly and more shared.
Do we want to copy — or even worsen — the traffic of today with driverless cars? Imagine a future where most adults own individual self-driving vehicles. They tolerate long, slow journeys to and from work on packed highways because they can work, entertain themselves or sleep on the ride, which encourages urban spread. They take their driverless car to an appointment and set the empty vehicle to circle the building to avoid paying for parking. Instead of walking a few blocks to pick up a child or the dry cleaning, they send the self-driving minibus. The convenience even leads fewer people to take public transport — an unwelcome side effect researchers have already found in ride-hailing(叫车) services.
A study from the University of California at Davis suggested that replacing petrol-powered private cars worldwide with electric, self-driving and shared systems could reduce carbon emissions from transportation 80% and cut the cost of transportation infrastructure(基础设施) and operations 40% by 2050. Fewer emissions and cheaper travel sound pretty appealing. The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly be fielded by ride-hailing services, considering the cost of self-driving technology as well as liability and maintenance issues(责任与维护问题). But driverless car ownership could increase as the prices drop and more people become comfortable with the technology.
 Policymakers should start thinking now about how to make sure the appearance of driverless vehicles doesn’t extend the worst aspects of the car-controlled transportation system we have today. The coming technological advancement presents a chance for cities and states to develop transportation systems designed to move more people, and more affordably. The car of the future is coming. We just have to plan for it.
47. According to the author, attention should be paid to how driverless cars can __________.
A. help deal with transportation-related problems
B. provide better services to customers
C. cause damage to our environment
D. make some people lose jobs
48. As for driverless cars, what is the author’s major concern?
A. Safety.    B. Side effects.
C. Affordability.    D. Management.
49. What does the underlined word "fielded" in Paragraph 4 probably mean?
A. Employed.    B. Replaced.
C. Shared.    D. Reduced.
50. What is the author’s attitude to the future of self-driving cars?
A. Doubtful.    B. Positive.
C. Disapproving.    D. Sympathetic.
【答案】47. A    48. D    49. A    50. B
【解析】本文为议论文。文章主要讨论有关无人驾驶汽车的发展前景和面临的问题。
47. 推理判断题。根据第二段While much of the debate so far has been focused on the safety of driverless cars(and rightfully so), policymakers also should be talking about how self-driving vehicles can help reduce traffic jams, cut emissions(排放) and offer more convenient, affordable mobility options.可知,政策制定者应该讨论无人驾驶车怎么帮助削减交通阻塞,减少尾气排放,提供更方便、更便宜的出行选择,由此可见人们应该多关注无人驾驶车怎么帮助处理与交通有关的问题。故选A。
48. 推理判断题。根据文章第一段But however long it takes, the technology has the potential to change our transportation systems and our cities, for better or for worse, depending on how the transformation is regulated.可知,不管花多长时间,这项技术都有可能改变我们的交通系统和我们的城市,不管是好是坏,这取决于如何这种转变如何被规范,再根据文章最后一句话The car of the future is coming. We just have to plan for it.可知,我们需要为其做好计划,故作者的主要关注点是对这种转变的管理规范,故选D。
49. 词义猜测题。根据第四段The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly be fielded by ride-hailing services, considering the cost of self-driving technology as well as liability and maintenance issues(责任与维护问题).可知,鉴于自主驾驶的费用以及责任和维护问题,无人驾驶车几乎可以肯定将会被打车服务使用。故划线词是“被应用”的意思。A. Employed被应用;B. Replaced被取代;C. Shared被分享;D. Reduced被减少。故选A。
50. 观点态度题。根据文章最后一段The coming technological advancement presents a chance for cities and states to develop transportation systems designed to move more people, and more affordably. The car of the future is coming. We just have to plan for it.中的 advancement,move more people, and more affordably.以及plan for it可推知,作者是积极的态度。故选B。
点睛:根据用词风格,推断情感态度。一篇好的文章,其用词风格常常直接流露或蕴含作者的内心世界和情感态度。所以阅读时要善于捕捉表达或暗示情感态度的词句或短语,捕捉那些烘托气氛,渲染情感的词句,进而很好地洞察作者的思想倾向,是支持、反对抑或中立?对于选项而言,要分清选项中的褒义词、中性词和贬义词,以此对照全文。
如本题最后一题为观点态度题,根据文中reduce carbon emissions,cut the cost of transportation infrastructure(基础设施) and operations 40% ,appealing,comfortable,advancement,move more people, and more affordably.,等词汇可以推断出作者对无人驾驶汽车持积极态度。故选B。
第二节
根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。
Why Do We Get Angry?
 Anger seems simple when we are feeling it, but the causes of anger are various. Knowing these causes can make us examine our behavior, and correct bad habits. The main reasons we get angry are triggering(触发)events, personality traits(特征), and our assessment of situations. _____51_____
Triggering events for anger are so many that to describe them all would take hundreds of pages. However, here are some examples: being cut off in traffic, a deadline approaching, experiencing physical pain, and much more. _____52_____ The reason why someone is triggered by something and others are not is often due to one’s personal history and psychological traits. 
Each person, no matter who they are, has psychological imbalances. People who have personality traits that connect with competitiveness and low upset tolerance are much more likely to get angry. ____53____ Also, sometimes pre-anger does not have to do with a lasting condition, but rather a temporary state before a triggering event has occurred.
_____54_____Sometimes even routine occurrences become sources of pre-anger, or anger itself. Sometimes ignorance and negative (消极的) outlooks on situations can create anger.
_____55_____However, anger can easily turn violent, and it is best to know the reasons for anger to appear in order to prevent its presence. With these main reasons in mind, we can evaluate our level of anger throughout the day and prevent cases of outbursts by comprehending the reasons for our feelings.
A. Our attitude and viewpoint on situations can create anger within us as well.
B. But some types of situations can help us to get rid of the occurrence of anger.
C. Anger is rarely looked upon as a beneficial character trait, and is usually advised to reduce it.
D. Anger is a particularly strong feeling and maybe people think that they have reasons to feel angry.
E. Having these personality traits implies the pre-anger state, where anger is in the background of your mind.
F. Understanding these reasons will control our own anger if we are willing to evaluate ourselves with a critical eye.
G. Not everyone acts the same in response to events, and that is why what triggers one person may or may not trigger another.
【答案】51. F    52. G    
53. E    54. A    
55. D
【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章分析了导致人们生气的三个原因并指出如何防止愤怒爆发。
51. 考查上下文理解和逻辑推理能力。上一句提到导致人们生气的三个主要原因: triggering(触发)events,personality traits(特征),our assessment of situations,下面的几段具体分析了这三个原因与生气的关系。故该句应该起承上启下的作用,故F选项(如果我们愿意用批判性的目光来评估自己的话,那么了解这些原因将会控制我们的愤怒。)承上启下,故选F。
52. 考查上下文理解和逻辑推理能力。该空前面两句提到引发愤怒的事件很多,例如:堵车,截止日期临近,身体疼痛等。下一句提到:某件事会激发一个人的怒气,但其他人却不会为此而生气的原因是由于个人的历史和心理特征。该空承上启下,应当提到某件事会使某些人生气,但不会使别人生气这个现象,故G选项(人们对这些事情的反应不一样,这就导致使一个人生气的事情可能会让另一个人生气,也可能不会让另一个人生气。)承上启下,故选G。
53. 考查上下文理解和逻辑推理能力。上一句提到:每个人都有自己的心里不平衡的地方。那些比较好强,气量比较小的人更容易生气。下一句提到:而且,有时候,pre-anger并不一定是一种持久的状态,而是一种触发事件发生前的暂时状态。该空承上启下,既要提到上一句中的那些性格特征,又要提到下一句中的pre-anger,故Having these personality traits implies the pre-anger state, where anger is in the background of your mind. (拥有这些个性特征意味着愤怒之前的状态,愤怒就在你的大脑背景中。)承上启下,故选E。
54. 考查上下文理解和逻辑推理能力。下一句提到:有时候,甚至常规性的事件也会变成pre-anger或恼怒的来源。有时候对这些情况的无知和负面观点会产生愤怒。该空位于段首,引出下文,故A选项(我们的对情况的态度和看法也会在我们内心产生愤怒。)是本段的主题句,概括全段内容,故选A。
55. 考查上下文理解和逻辑推理能力。下一句提到:但是生气很容易转变为暴力,所以最好了解一下愤怒的原因来阻止它的存在。该句和上一句之间是转折关系,结合剩余选项可知,D选项(愤怒是一种特别强烈的感情,或许人们认为他们有理由生气。)和下文构成转折关系,故选D。
点睛:七选五解题策略之一:词语复现
词语复现包括原词复现和同反义词复现,及正确选项和空格前后句子有相同的词或同反义词相互呼应。抓住这些复现线索,题目自然迎刃而解。在第一小题中,空前的the main reasons和G选项中的these reasons属于原词复现。第二小题空前文提到的trigger,G选项中的trigger,和空后一句中的trigger也属于原词复现。
第三部分:书面表达
第一节
56. 假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,你的英国朋友Jim在给你的邮件中提到他对中国文化感兴趣,计划明年来北京上大学。他向你咨询相关信息。请给他回邮件,内容包括:
(1) 表示欢迎;
(2) 推荐他上哪所大学;
(3) 建议他做哪些准备工作。
注意:(1). 词数不少于50;
(2). 开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。
Dear Jim,
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Yours,
Li Hua
【答案】Dear Jim,
I’m so glad to hear your future education plan in Beijing in your last letter. First I would like to express my warmest welcome to you and I am sure you will have the most unforgettable experience during your college in Beijing.
Learning your keen interest in Chinese culture, I suggest you apply for Peking University, one of the best universities in China. Its Chinese Literature major is perfect for you where you can be completely soaked in Chinese profound history and rich culture. As for preparation, some reading in advance is needed like The Story of the Stone while some online courses of spoken Chinese can be helpful for you to adapt into the Chinese language environment.
I sincerely hope your dream will come true and it’s my pleasure to show you around in Beijing when that day comes. If you have further questions, please feel free to let me know.
Yours,
Li Hua
【解析】本文为提纲式作文,文章要求写推荐信,为英国朋友介绍北京的大学。首先可以介绍一下写作背景(Jim对中国文化感兴趣,要来中国学习),表达欢迎。然后推荐一所大学,并简要介绍推荐的原因(如大学的特色,可以学到什么等)。再次简单介绍应该做哪方面的准备,如可以提前学习汉语,读点有关中国传统文化的书,了解中国的习俗,让自己更好地适应中国的生活。文章可采用一般现在时,人称可以使用第二人称。
亮点说明:文章中巧妙使用非谓语Learning your keen interest in Chinese culture, 使句子结构紧凑。
使用定语从句Its Chinese Literature major is perfect for you where you can be completely soaked in Chinese profound history and rich culture. 使句子表达更完美;巧妙使用连接词while引出来中国前的准备,使句子结构对称。
(请务必将作文写在答题卡指定区域内)
第二节
57. 假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,请根据以下四幅图的先后顺序,写一篇英文周记,记述你们上周接待外国学生,带领他们体验中国茶文化的全过程。
注意:词数不少于60。

(请务必将作文写在答题卡指定区域内)
【答案】Last week, we took the foreign students in our school to experience the authentic tea culture, which turned out be to extremely rewarding.
On arriving at the tea house, the foreign students were impressed by the unique tea pots and tea cups. I gave them a vivid and informative introduction of tea culture, including its profound history, its rich variety, and the exquisite craftsmanship of making tea with their interest greatly sparked, I then began to teach them how to make tea.
In order to deliver a clear presentation, I slowly explained the traditional procedure of making tea in detail. Absorbed in every move of mine, the foreign students were once again amazed by this unique culture and they couldn’t help taking pictures from time to time.
Next came the moment when I asked them to have a try themselves. Washing the tea pots, adding tea leaves, and pouring water into the cups, they followed my instructions and were really immersed in charming tea culture. The tea house witnessed a really enjoyable time for all of us.
At the end of the activity, holding the tea bags in our hands, we took a picture to memorize the unforgettable day. It suddenly hit me that traditional culture like tea culture was of great charm and huge value. And I swelled with pride to spread our own culture to people all over the world.
【解析】本文为图片介绍类作文,这类作文是根据给出的一幅或几幅图画所提供的信息写短文。此类题的体裁较广泛,可以是记叙文、说明文,也可以是议论文。按照本文的要求可知,是写一篇记叙文。
1. 认真读图,把握中心。
根据提示可知,内容是带领外国学生体验中国茶文化的全过程,介绍了茶具,泡茶,沏茶,品茶的过程,所以这是这组图画所要表达的中心。
2. 初步构思,考虑用词、短语、句型和时态。
在把握了文章的中心后,应在内心构思一个基本的框架,并考虑使用恰当的词语、短语和句型,以充分地表达文章的内容。本文是讲述上周发生的事情,故时态要以过去时为主,人称是第一人称,尽可能地充分利用所学的短语或句型来表述具体的内容。这是体现自身能力的重要一环。
3. 连词成句,然后再连句成文。
运用适当的单词或短语正确表达各图的意思。然后再将各图的单个句子串连起来。
串连时,要注意使用适当的连接词语或过渡性语句,不至于让读者觉得文章中出现跳跃现象,更使上下文更为紧凑、自然。
4. 反复审核,修改错误。
一篇文章写好后,应进行检查,看短文中是否有错,如拼写、用词、时态、语态及表达方面的错误。
5. 宜详则详,该略则略。
对于一些细节方面的内容,如果是文章必不可少的,在写作过程中是不可将其忽略的。
如果是可有可无的细节,则可视具体情况进行增删。据此,我们在读图时一定要注意阅读各图中的一些细节内容,看其是否影响文章的内容。
亮点说明:
巧妙使用定语从句,提升了文章档次:Last week, we took the foreign students in our school to experience the authentic tea culture, which turned out be to extremely rewarding. 
使用非谓语动词,使句子表达更简洁:
On arriving at the tea house…
I gave them a vivid and informative introduction of tea culture, including its profound history, its rich variety,
Absorbed in every move of mine, the foreign students were once again amazed by this unique culture
holding the tea bags in our hands, we took a picture to memorize the unforgettable day.
使用倒装句突出重点。
Next came the moment when I asked them to have a try themselves.
使用it做形式主语,使表达更地道。
It suddenly hit me that traditional culture like tea culture was of great charm and huge value.










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