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【解析版】2018年高考天津卷英语试题

资料类别: 英语/试题

所属版本: 通用

所属地区: 天津

上传时间:2018/7/2

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资料类型:历年高考题

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绝密★启用前
2018年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(天津卷)
英语笔试
本试卷分为第I卷(选择题)和第II卷(非选择题)两部分,共130分,考试用时100分钟。第I卷1至10页,第II卷11至12页。
答卷前,考生务必将自己的姓名、准考号填写在答题卡上,并在规定位置粘贴考试用条形码。答卷时,考生务必将答案涂写在答题卡上,答在试卷上的无效。考试结束后,将本试卷和答题卡一并交回。
祝各位考生考试顺利!
第I卷
注意事项:
1. 每小题选出答案后,用铅笔将答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑。如需改动,用橡皮擦干净后,再选涂其他答案标号。
2. 本卷共55小题,共95分。
第一部分:英语知识运用(共两节,满分45分)
第一节:单项填空(共15小题;每小题1分,满分15分)
从A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。
例:Stand over there___________ you’ll be able to see it better.
A. or          B. and           C. but         D. while
答案是B。
第二节:完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分)
阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从16~35各题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。
1. —Wasn't Joan supposed to be here by now?
一She will be here in about twenty minutes.z.x.xk
A. All right    B. Don't worry
C. No wonder    D. Enjoy yourself
【答案】B
【解析】考查交际用语。句意:——琼现在不是应该在这儿吗?——不用担心,在大约20分钟内她将会到这儿的。A. all right好,行;B. Don’t worry别担心;C. No wonder难怪;D. Enjoy yourself玩得开心。根据答句中的She will be there in about twenty minutes.可以判断:不需要担心琼,她一会儿就到。故选B。
点睛:本题考查日常交际用语,首先读懂对话,弄清句意及各选择项含义,然后抓住答句,就不难选出正确答案。
2. Kae, _________sister I shared a room with when we were at college, has gone to work in Australia.
A. whom    B. that
C. whose    D. her
【答案】C
【解析】考查定语从句关系词。句意:凯特已经去澳大利亚工作了。我们在大学的时候,我和她的姐姐共住一室。分析句子,句中先行词为Kate,在非限定性定语从句中作名词sister的定语,故用关系代词whose。故选C。
点睛:本题考查定语从句。定语从句是高考重点考查知识之一,分析定语从句需抓住两点:1.找准先行词;2.看先行词在从句中所作的成分。抓住这两点,再根据句意,从而能够判断出正确的关系词。
3. At first Robert wouldn't let his daughter go diving, but eventually he___________ as she was so confidence about her skills.
A. gave in    B. dressed up
C. broke in    D. turned up
【答案】A
【解析】考查动词短语词义辨析及语境理解。句意:起初,罗伯特不愿让他女儿去潜水,但最终他让步了,因为她对她的技能是如此的有把握。A. gave in屈服,让步;B. dressed up打扮;C. broke in闯入;打断;D. turned up出现。根据转折词but及原因as she was so confident about her skills.可知,最终他让步了。故选A。
点睛:本题考查动词短语辨析。分析后句的原因状语可以判定出罗伯特最终让步,再联系所学短语就不难选出正确答案。同学平时学习过程中要多注意词汇和短语的积累,尤其是含义比较多的词汇和短语。
4. Let's not pick these peaches until this weekend ___________they get sweet enough to be eaten.
A. ever since    B. as if
C. even though    D. so that
【答案】D
【解析】考查连词短语词义辨析及语境理解。句意:让我们这个周末再摘这些桃子,这样的话,它们吃起来就变得足够的甜。A. ever since自那时起;B. as if好像;C. even though尽管;D. so that以便。从句为目的状语从句,故用so that引导。故选D。
点睛:本题考查连词短语词义辨析。解题时要区分清选择项的含义与区别,再联系句意可以判断,这里考查so that引导的目的状语从句。
5. —I'm moving in a few days and I wonder if you could help.
—___________. Just let me know when, and I'll be there.
A. You bet    B. It depends
C. Forget it    D. No kidding
【答案】A
【解析】考查交际用语。句意:——我在几天内会搬家,我想知道你是否能帮忙。——没问题,只需要让我知道什么时候,我就会到那儿。A. You bet没问题;B. It depends看情况而定;C. Forget it算了吧;D. No kidding别开玩笑。根据答句中的Just let me know when, and I’ll be there.可以判断:他/她一定会帮忙。故选A。
点睛:本题考查日常交际用语,首先读懂对话,弄清句意及各选择项在语境中的具体运用,然后抓住关键答句Just let me know when, and I’ll be there.,就不难选出正确答案。
6. The__________ that there is life on other planets in the universe has always inspired scientists to explore the outer space.
A. advice    B. order
C. possibility    D. invitation
【答案】C
【解析】考查名词词义辨析及语境理解。句意:宇宙中其它星球上存在生命这种可能性总是激励科学家们去探索外部空间。A. advice建议;B. order命令;C. possibility可能性;D. invitation邀请。故选C。
点睛:本题考查名词辨析。名词和动词及短语的考查是高考重点考查的知识点。本题语法上是一个同位语从句,从句that there is life on other planets in the universe是来解释说明前面所选择的名词。根据常识可以判断,宇宙中其它星球上存在生命只是一种可能性,目前无法证明,从而选出正确答案。
7. I need a new passport so I will have to have my photographs___________.
A. taking    B. taken
C. being taken    D. take
【答案】B
【解析】考查非谓语动词。句意:我需要一个新护照,所以我将不得不拍照片。本题考查非谓语动词作宾语补足语,宾语my photograph与补足语之间为被动关系,故用过去分词作宾语补足语。C项表示正在进行。故选B。
点睛:本题考查的非谓语动词为高中重点语法之一。在分析题目的时候,首先要抓住非谓语动词在句中所作的成分,找出该非谓语动词所对应的逻辑主语,再分析二者之间的关系,最后根据句意选择正确的答案。
8. It took him a long time to___________ the skills he needed to become a good dancer.
A. display    B. acquire
C. teach    D. test
【答案】B
【解析】考查动词词义辨析及语境理解。句意:他花了很长时间才获得了成为一名优秀舞蹈家所需的技能。A display显示;B. acquire获得;C. teach教;D. test测试。故选B。
点睛:本题考查动词辨析。动词和动词短语的考查是高考重点考查的知识点,解题时要区分清选择项的含义与区别,再联系句意进行判断,从而选出正确答案。
9. The gold medal will be awarded ___________to wins the first place in the bicycle race.
A. whomever    B. wherever
C. whoever    D. whatever
【答案】C
【解析】考查名词性从句连接词。句意:无论谁获得自行车比赛第一名,金牌将授予他。分析句子可知,宾语从句中缺少主语,故用whoever,表示“任何人,无论谁”。故选C。
点睛:分析句子可知,空格处做be awarded to的宾语,同时在后面的从句中做主语,再根据句意可知,这里主语指人,故用whoever。
10. I can't find my purse. I___________ it in the supermarket yesterday, but I'm not sure.
A. should leave    B. must have left
C. might leave    D. could have left
【答案】D
【解析】考查情态动词表推测和虚拟语气。句意:我不能找到我的钱包了,昨天我有可能把它落到超市了,但我不确定。根据句中时间状语yesterday可知,是对过去事情的推测,故用情态动词+ have done,再根据后句but I’m not sure.可知,此推测为不能肯定的推测,故用情态动词could,表示“可能”。故选D。
点睛:情态动词是每年高考的热点也是难点。本题抓住两点:第一、时态。根据句中时间状语可以判断出是对过去事情的推测,故用情态动词 + have done;如果是对现在事情的推测,才用情态动词+v原形。第二、情态动词的选择。must为肯定推测,表示“一定”,could为不肯定推测,表示“可能”,这样就能选出正确答案。
11. Bob thought he couldn't go to the party because he had to write a report, but he went ___________.
A. at first    B. after all
C. above all    D. at random
【答案】B
【解析】考查介词短语辨析及语境理解。句意:鲍勃认为他不能去参加聚会,因为他不得不写一份报告,但他终究去了。A. at first起初;B. after all毕竟,终究。C. above all首先;D. at random随便地。根据前面的转折连词可知,与前面情况相反,故选B。
点睛:本题侧重考查在特定的语境中辨析短语的能力。对于短语而言,没有捷径可言,只有老老实实的记忆。考生除了要充分利用特定语境理解词义,还需要重点关注他们用法上的区别。
12. I didn't mean ___________anything but the ice cream looked so good that I couldn’t help_______ it.
A. to eat;to try    B. eating;trying
C. eating;to try    D. to eat; trying
【答案】D
【解析】考查短语固定搭配。句意:我不打算吃任何东西,但冰淇淋看起来如此的好以至于我忍不住的要试一试。固定短语短语mean to do(打算做),couldn’t help doing忍不住做。故选D。
点睛:本题考查动词短语固定搭配。同学在平时学习中要多把握动词不同搭配的不同含义,本题需要区分“mean to do打算做”与“mean doing意味着做”和“can’t help to do sth.不能帮助做”与“couldn’t help doing忍不住做”之间的含义。
13. My washing machine ___________this week, so I have to wash my clothes by hand.
A. was repaired    B. is repaired
C. is being repaired    D. has been repaired
【答案】C
【解析】考查时态。句意:这周我的洗衣机正在修,所以我不得不手洗衣服。根据后句so I have to wash my clothes by hand.可知,洗衣机正在修,故用现在进行时态的被动语态。故选C。
点睛:本题考查时态。分析选项可以知道,4个选项都用了被动语态,本题考查的其实是不同的时态。选项A是过去时;选项B是一般现在时的被动;选项C是现在进行时;选项D是现在完成时。再结合语境进行分析,最终判断出最佳答案。
14. It was only when the car pulled up in front of our house ___________we saw Lily in the passenger seat.
A. which    B. that
C. when    D. where
【答案】B
【解析】考查强调句。句意:只有当汽车在我们房子前停下来我们才看到在乘客位置的莉莉。这里考查强调句,强调句型结构为:It is/ was + 被强调部分(通常是主语、宾语或状语)+ that/ who(当强调主语且主语指人)+ 其他部分。本题强调时间状语only when the car pulled up in front of our house。故选B。
点睛:本题考查强调句,要求有学生掌握好强调句的常用句型以及相关知识的能力。分析句子时首先要看清楚结构,It is / was…开头而后面跟句子时就要看它是不是强调句了。强调句有一个特点:拿掉It was/is…that…后不影响整个句子的完整性,则是强调句。判断完是不是强调句后再根据强调的部分是人还是物来选择连接词that或者是who。
15. If we ___________the flight yesterday, we would be enjoying our holiday on the beach
A. had caught    B. caught
C. have caught    D. would catch
【答案】A
【解析】考查虚拟语气。句意:如果我们昨天赶上飞机的话,现在我们正在海滩享受我们的假日了。根据时间状语yesterday可知,从句表示与过去事实相反,故用had + v-ed。故选A。
点睛:本题考查虚拟语气。虚拟语气重要做题原则:根据题干中主句或从句中动词形式判断所考查的动词的虚拟时间,一般要保持一致,但要注意错综时间虚拟语气要根据各自所表示的虚拟时间做出调整。本题就是错综条件虚拟语气,从句与过去事实相反,故用had + v-ed,主句与现在事实相反。
第二节 完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分)
阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从16~35各题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。
No one is born a winner. People make themselves into winners by their own ___16___
I learned this lesson from a(n) ___17___ many years ago. I took the head ___18___job at a school in Baxley, Georgia. It was a small school with a weak football program.
It was a tradition for the school's old team to play against the ___19___ team at the end of spring practice. The old team had no coach, and they didn't even practice to ____20____the game. Being the coach of the new team, I was excited because I knew we were going to win, but to my disappointment we were defeated. I couldn't ___21___ I had got into such a situation. Thinking hard about it, I came to ___22___ that my team might not be the number one team in Georgia, but they were ____23____me. I had to change my ___24___about their ability and potential.
I started doing anything I could to help them build a little ____25____. Most important, I began to treat them like ____26____. That summer, when the other teams enjoyed their ____27____, we met every day and _____28_____passing and kicking the football.
Six months after suffering our _____29_____on the spring practice field, we won our first game and our second, and continued to ____30____. Finally, we faced the number one team in the state. I felt that it would be a ____31____for us even if we lost the game. But that wasn't what happened. My boys beat the best team in Georgia, giving me one of the greatest ____32____of my life!
From the experience I learnt a lot about how the attitude of the leader can ____33____ the members of a team. Instead of seeing my boys as losers, I pushed and_____34_____them. I helped them to see themselves ____35____, and they built themselves into winners.
Winners are made, but born.
16. A. luck    B. tests    C. efforts    D. nature
17. A. experiment    B. experience    C. visit    D. show
18. A. operating    B. editing    C. consulting    D. coaching
19. A. successful    B. excellent    C. strong    D. new
20. A. cheer for    B. prepare for    C. help with    D. finish with
21. A. believe    B. agree    C. describe    D. regret
22. A. realize    B. claim    C. permit    D. demand
23. A. reacting to    B. looking for    C. depending on    D. caring about
24. A. decision    B. attitude    C. conclusion    D. intention
25. A. pride    B. culture    C. fortune    D. relationship
26. A. leaders    B. partners    C. winners    D. learners
27. A. rewards    B. vacations    C. health    D. honor
28. A. risked    B. missed    C. considered    D. practiced
29. A. defeat    B. decline    C. accident    D. mistake
30. A. relax    B. improve    C. expand    D. defend
31. A. shame    B. burden    C. victory    D. favor
32. A. chances    B. thrills    C. concerns    D. offers
33. A. surprise    B. serve    C. interest    D. affect
34. A. encouraged    B. observed    C. protected    D. impressed
35. A. honestly    B. individually    C. calmly    D. differently
【答案】16. C    17. B    18. D    19. D    20. B    21. A    22. A    23. C    24. B    25. A    26. C    27. B    28. D    29. A    30. B    31. C    32. B    33. D    34. A    35. D
【解析】本文是一篇记叙文。多年前作者担任过一个学校足球队的教练,在一次比赛中输给了学校的新队。作者开始反思,不停的训练和鼓励队员,最终不可思议的赢得州里最强的对手。从这次经历中,作者感悟到:没有人天生就是赢家,只有依靠自己的努力才能成为赢家。
16. 考查名词以及对语境的理解。A. luck幸运;B. tests测试;C. efforts努力;D. nature自然。根据前一句No one is born a winner.(没有人天生就是赢家),根据常识可知,只有依靠自己的努力才能成为赢家。故选C。
17. 考查名词以及对语境的理解。A .experiment实验;B. experience经历;C. visit参观;D. show展示。根据下文可知,作者是从一次经历中得出这样的教训的。故选B。
18. 考查动词以及对语境的理解。A. operating操作;B. editing编辑;C. consulting咨询;D. coaching指导。根据后文Being the coach of the new team, I was excited because I knew we were going to win, but to my disappointment we were defeated.可知,作者在一所学校担任总教练工作。故选D。
19. 考查形容词以及对语境的理解。A. successful成功的;B. excellent杰出的;C. strong强壮的;D. new新的。根据前半句It was a tradition for the school’s old team中的old team提示可知,春季训练结束时,学校新老队伍对抗是一个传统。故选D。
20. 考查动词短语以及对语境的理解。A. cheer for为……欢呼;B. prepare for为……准备;C. help with帮助某人做……;D. finish with结束于;和. ……断绝关系。老队没有教练,他们甚至不练习来准备比赛。故选B。
21. 考查动词以及对语境的理解。A. believe相信;B. agree同意;C. describe描述;D. regret后悔。根据前句but to my disappointment we were defeated.可知,作者不能相信会遇到这样的情况。故选A。
22. 考查动词以及对语境的理解。A. realize意识到;B. claim宣称;C. permit允许;D. demand要求。短语come to realize开始意识到。我开始意识到我的队也许不是佐治亚州头号队伍。故选A。
23. 考查动词短语以及对语境的理解。A. reacting to对……起反应;B. looking for寻找;C. depending on依靠;D. caring about关心。但他们都在依靠我。故选C。
24. 考查名词以及对语境的理解。A. decision决定;B. attitude态度;C. conclusion结论;D. intention意图。我不得不改变我对他们能力和潜力的态度。故选B。
25. 考查名词以及对语境的理解。A. pride自豪,自尊心;B. culture文化;C. fortune幸运;D. relationship关系。我开始做任何我能做的事情来帮助他们建立一点自尊心。故选A。
26. 考查名词以及对语境的理解。A. leaders领导;B. partners伙伴;C. winners获胜者;D. learners学习者。根据后文Instead of seeing my boys as losers, I pushed and____19____them.以及文中最后一句提示可知,作者开始像获胜者对待他们。故选C。
27. 考查名词以及对语境的理解。A. reward报酬;B. vacations假期;C. health健康;D. honor荣誉。根据That summer可知,当其它队队员享受着他们假期的时候。故选B。
28. 考查动词以及对语境的理解。A. risked冒险;B. missed错过;C. considered考虑;D. practiced练习。根据上文The old team had no coach, and they didn't even practice to ____5____the game.提示可得出答案。这里指练习传球和踢球。故选D。
29. 考查名词以及对语境的理解。A. defeat打败;B. decline跌落;C. accident事故;D. mistake错误。根据上文but to my disappointment we were defeated.提示可得出答案。在春季训练赛场遭受失败之后。故选A。
30. 考查动词以及对语境的理解。A. relax放松;B. improve提高,改善;C. expand扩大;D. defend防御。根据前句we won our first game and our second可知,我们继续在提高。故选B。
31. 考查名词以及对语境的理解。A. shame羞愧;B. burden负担;C. victory胜利;D. favor赞成。即使我们输掉比赛,我们感觉它会是一场胜利。故选C。
32. 考查名词以及对语境的理解。A. chances机会;B. thrills激动;C. concerns关心;D. offers提供。根据前句My boys beat the best team in Georgia可知,是作者一生中最激动人心的一次!故选B。
33. 考查动词以及对语境的理解。A. surprise惊讶;B. serve服务;C. interest兴趣;D. offers提供。从这次经历,我意识到领袖的态度如何能够呈现给队里的每个成员。故选D。
34. 考查动词以及对语境的理解。A. encouraged鼓励;B. observed观察;C. protected保护;D. impressed影响。根据I pushed可知,作者在推动和鼓励他们。故选A。
35. 考查副词以及对语境的理解。A. honestly诚实地;B. individually个别地;C. calmly镇静地;D. differently不同地。根据后句and they built themselves into winners.可知,我帮助他们以不同的方式看待自己。故选D。
【点睛】本文是一篇记叙类的完形填空,难度中等偏易。考生需认真阅读短文,仔细审题,主要的是要理解全文的中心思想:没有人天生就是赢家,只有依靠自己的努力才能成为赢家。考生做题时,首先抓住文章开头的中心句,然后要注意抓住故事情节,理解文章脉络,领会作者的写作意图,注重语境的理解,前后句之间的联系,在语境中斟酌所选的答案。
第二部分:阅读理解(共20小题; 每小题2. 5分,满分50分)
阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。
A
Fire Prevention Information
The University of Adelaide employs a full-time staff of fire prevention professionals. They inspect all campus buildings and test and maintain all sprinkler(喷水灭火装置)systems fire alarms and fire  extinguishers (灭火器). They also provide educational programs on fire safety in the residence hall. Whenever you move to a new area, you should locate the fire alarm pull stations and the two exits nearest your room.
Fire Alarms
The floors of all campus buildings are equipped with manual(手动的)fire alarm systems which include fire alarm pull stations and pipes. Most are also equipped with automatic fire alarm systems consisting of heat detectors, smoke detectors and sprinklers. For your safety, never tamper with(胡乱摆弄)these systems. False fire alarms are illegal and may lead to imprisonment.
Fire Drills
A fire drill will be conducted in your residence hall every semester. During a fire drill, please do the following:
·Take your room key and ID, close and lock the door to your room.
·Exit immediately from the nearest emergency exit do not use a lift.
·Meet outside of your residence hall and wait for further instructions.
Fire Extinguishers
Fire extinguishers are located on each floor and in each apartment. Use a fire extinguisher only if you have been trained to do so. Irresponsible use of a fire extinguisher can create a dangerous situation for other residents and could result in damage to personal property.
Misuse of a fire extinguisher will result in fines.
Smoke Detector
A smoke detector is on the ceiling in your room. Some buildings also have heat detectors on the ceilings. Do the following to ensure the safe operation of your smoke detector:
·If your smoke detector is working properly, the red light should be on. If the red light is not blinking(闪动),contact residence hall staff immediately.
·Do not cover or block your smoke detector in any way.
·If a smoke detector sets off an alarm and there is no fire or smoke, inform your hall staff.
36. What is the main duty of the fire prevention professionals?
A. To provide part-time jobs for students.
B. To lead the students to the nearest exits.
C. To check and maintain fire prevention equipment.
D. To train teachers to be fire prevention professionals.
37. What do the automatic fire alarm systems include?
A. Pipes and smoke detectors.
B. Smoke detectors and sprinklers.
C. Fire alarm pull stations and pipes.
D. Sprinklers and fire alarm pull stations
38. In a fire drill, the students should ________.
A. rush quickly to a lift
B. gather at the nearest exit.
C. shut the door and leave at once
D. wait for instructions in the hall
39. What do we know about the use of fire extinguishers?
A. Using them wrongly results in punishment.
B. Irresponsible use of them can damage them.
C. Improper use of them can destroy the apartment.
D. Using them without a trainer present is forbidden.
40. To ensure the safe operation of the smoke detector, one should_________.
A. contact the hall staff regularly
B. cover the things that burn easily
C. start the smoke detector in a fire
D. make certain the red light is working
【答案】36. C    37. B    38. C    39. A    40. D
【解析】本文是一篇说明文。文章主要从火警、消防训练、灭火器和烟雾探测器的使用等方面介绍了一些防火信息。
36. 细节理解题。根据文章第一段They inspect all campus buildings and test and maintain all sprinkler(喷水灭火装置)systems fire alarms and fire extinguishers (灭火器).可知,专职消防人员主要职责是检查、测试和维护所有的校园建筑物防火装备。故选C。
37. 细节理解题。根据文章Fire Alarms中的句子Most are also equipped with automatic fire alarm systems consisting heat detectors, smoke detectors and sprinklers.可知,火灾自动报警系统由热探测器、烟雾探测器和喷头组成。故选B。
38. 细节理解题。根据文章Fire Drills中的句子Take your room key and ID, close and lock the door to your room.和Exit immediately from the nearest emergency exit do not use a lift.可知,在消防演习中,学生锁好门并立即从最近的紧急出口离开。故选C。
39. 细节理解题。根据文章Fire Extinguishers中的句子Misuse of a fire extinguisher will result in fines.可知,误用灭火器会导致罚款。故选A。
40. 细节理解题。根据文章Smoke Detector中的句子If your smoke detector is working properly, the red light should be on. If the red light is not blinking(闪动),contact residence hall staff immediately.可知,烟雾探测器是否安全运行,看红灯是否闪动。故选D。

B
When I was 17, I read a magazine article about a museum called the McNay, once the home of a watercolorist named Marian McNay. She had requested the community to turn it into a museum upon her death. On a sunny Saturday, Sally and I drove over to the museum. She asked, "Do you have the address? ""No, but I'll recognize it, there was a picture in the magazine. "
"Oh, stop. There it is!”
The museum was free. We entered, excited. A group of people sitting in the hall stopped talking and stared at us.
"May I help you?" a man asked. "No, "I said. "We're fine.” Tour guides got on my nerves. What if they talked a long time about a painting you weren't that interested in? Sally had gone upstairs. The people in the hall seemed very nosy(爱窥探的), keeping their eyes on me with curiosity. What was their problem? I saw some nice sculptures in one room. Suddenly I sensed a man standing behind me. "Where do you think you are? " he asked. I turned sharply. "The McNay Art Museum!" He smiled, shaking his head. "Sorry, the McNay is on New Braunfels Street." "What’s this place?” I asked, still confused. "Well, it's our home." My heart jolted(震颤). I raced to the staircase and called out, "Sally! Come down immediately! "
"There's some really good stuff(艺术作品) up there." She stepped down, looking confused. I pushed her toward the front door, waving at the family, saying, "Sorry, please forgive us, you have a really nice place." Outside, when I told Sally what happened, she covered her mouth, laughing. She couldn't believe how long they let us look around without saying anything.
The real McNay was splendid, but we felt nervous the whole time we were there. Van Gogh, Picasso. This time, we stayed together, in case anything else unusual happened.
Thirty years later, a woman approached me in a public place. "Excuse me, did you ever enter a residence, long ago, thinking it was the McNay Museum?"
"Yes. But how do you know? We never told anyone."
"That was my home. I was a teenager sitting in the hall. Before you came over, I never realized what a beautiful place I lived in. I never felt lucky before. You thought it was a museum. My feelings about my home changed after that. I've always wanted to thank you."
41. What do we know about Marian McNay?
A. She was a painter.
B. She was a community leader.
C. She was a museum director.
D. She was a journalist.
42. Why did the author refuse the help from the man in the house?
A. She disliked people who were nosy.
B. She felt nervous when talking to strangers.
C. She knew more about art than the man.
D. She mistook him for a tour guide.
43. How did the author feel about being stared at by the people in the hall?
A. Puzzled.    B. Concerned.
C. Frightened.    D. Delighted.
44. Why did the author describe the real McNay museum in just a few words?
A. The real museum lacked enough artwork to interest her.
B. She was too upset to spend much time at the real museum.
C. The McNay was disappointing compared with the house.
D. The event happening in the house was more significant.
45. What could we learn from the last paragraph?
A. People should have good taste to enjoy life.
B. People should spend more time with their family.
C. People tend to be blind to the beauty around them.
D. People tend to educate teenagers at a museum.
【答案】41. A    42. D    43. A    44. D    45. C
【解析】本文是一篇记叙文。文章作者和朋友原想参观McNay博物馆,到了之后参观的时候,发现很多人奇怪的看着她,最后才发现自己误将一个私人住宅当成McNay博物馆。30年后,一位女士认出误撞入自己住宅的作者,指出正是因为作者的误撞入才让她意识到自己住的地方有多么美丽。
41. 细节理解题。根据文章第一段When I was 17, I read a magazine article about a museum called the McNay, once the home of a watercolorist named Marian McNay.可知,Marian McNay是一名水彩画家。故选A。
42. 细节理解题。根据文章第四段"May I help you?" a man asked. "No, "I said. "We're fine.” Tour guides got on my nerves.可知,导游令作者心烦,作者误认为屋子里的男人是位导游。故选D。
43. 推理判断题。根据文章第四段The people in the hall seemed very nosy(爱窥探的), keeping their eyes on me with curiosity. What was their problem?(大厅的人看起来都非常爱窥探的,眼睛不停的好奇的看着我。他们有什么问题?)可以推断出,作者当时感到困惑不解。故选A。
44. 推理判断题。根据全文可知,作者着墨点主要在叙述参观误当成McNay博物馆的私人住宅上,故这才是文章的重心,所以将真正的McNay博物馆叙述一带而过。故选D。
45. 推理判断题。根据文章最后一段Before you came over, I never realized what a beautiful place I lived in.可知,在作者未造访她家之前,这位女士从未意识到自己住的地方多么美丽,从而可以推断出,人们往往对周围的美而不见。故选C。
【点睛】本文是叙事性的文章,文章有一定的趣味性,整体难度中等,考查主要以细节理解和推理判断两类题型。推理判断题属于主观性较强的高层次阅读理解题,做这类题目时,同学们要严格依据作者所陈述的细节、事实以及作者的措词、态度和语气,找出能够表露作者思想倾向和感情色彩的词句,然后利用自己已获得的相关知识进行推理判断,从而得出符合逻辑的结论。如小题3中考查作者被人盯着看的感受,我们需要找到文章中作者的措词nosy,curiosity和problem,可以推断出作者当时非常困惑不解的心理感受。
C
There’s a new frontier in 3D printing that’s beginning to come into focus: food. Recent development has made possible machines that print, cook, and serve foods on a mass scale. And the industry isn’t stopping there.
Food production
With a 3D printer, a cook can print complicated chocolate sculptures and beautiful pieces for decoration on a wedding cake. Not everybody can do that — it takes years of experience, but a printer makes it easy. A restaurant in Spain uses a Foodini to “re-create forms and pieces” of food that are “exactly the same,” freeing cooks to complete other tasks. In another restaurant, all of the dishes and desserts it serves are 3D-printed,rather than farm to table.
Sustainability(可持续性)
The global population is expected to grow to 9.6 billion by 2050, and some analysts estimate that food production will need to be raised by 50 percent to maintain current levels. Sustainability is becoming a necessity. 3D food printing could probably contribute to the solution. Some experts believe printers could use hydrocolloids (水解胶体) from plentiful renewables like algae(藻类) and grass to replace the familiar ingredients(烹饪原料). 3D printing can reduce fuel use and emissions. Grocery stores of the future might stock "food" that lasts years on end, freeing up shelf space and reducing transportation and storage requirements.
Nutrition
Future 3D food printers could make processed food healthier. Hod Lipson, a professor at Columbia University, said, “Food printing could allow consumers to print food with customized nutritional content, like vitamins. So instead of eating a piece of yesterday’s bread from the supermarket, you’d eat something baked just for you on demand.”
Challenges
Despite recent advancements in 3D food printing, the industry has many challenges to overcome. Currently, most ingredients must be changed to a paste(糊状物) before a printer can use them, and the printing process is quite time-consuming, because ingredients interact with each other in very complex ways. On top of that, most of the 3D food printers now are restricted to dry ingredients, because meat and milk products may easily go bad. Some experts are skeptical about 3D food printers, believing they are better suited for fast food restaurants than homes and high-end restaurants.
46. What benefit does 3D printing bring to food production?
A. It helps cooks to create new dishes.
B. It saves time and effort in cooking.
C. It improves the cooking conditions.
D. It contributes to restaurant decorations.
47. What can we learn about 3D food printing from Paragraphs 3?
A. It solves food shortages easily.
B. It quickens the transportation of food.
C. It needs no space for the storage of food.
D. It uses renewable materials as sources of food.
48. According to Paragraph 4, 3D-printed food ________.
A. is more available to consumers
B. can meet individual nutritional needs
C. is more tasty than food in supermarkets
D. can keep all the nutrition in raw materials
49. What is the main factor that prevents 3D food printing from spreading widely?
A. The printing process is complicated.
B. 3D food printers are too expensive.
C. Food materials have to be dry.
D. Some experts doubt 3D food printing.
50. What could be the best title of the passage?
A. 3D Food Printing: Delicious New Technology
B. A New Way to Improve 3D Food Printing
C. The Challenges for 3D Food Production
D. 3D Food Printing: From Farm to Table
【答案】46. B    47. D    48. B    49. C    50. A
【解析】本文是一篇科普类短文阅读。文章主要介绍了3D打印技术在食物上的应用取得了进展,但目前仍面临着许多方面的挑战。
46. 推理判断题。根据文章Food production中叙述了没有经验的人可以用3D打印机做出复杂的巧克力雕塑和美丽的婚礼蛋糕,以及餐厅能够用3D打印出所有的菜肴和甜点,从而可以推断出3D打印的优势是节省了做饭的时间和精力。故选B。
47. 细节理解题。根据文章第三段Some experts believe printers could use hydrocolloids (水解胶体) from plentiful renewables like algae(藻类) and grass to replace the familiar ingredients(烹饪原料).可知,3D打印机可以使用可再生材料作为食物来源。故选D。
48. 推理判断题。根据文章第四段Food printing could allow consumers to print food with customized nutritional content, like vitamins.(食品打印可以让消费者打印定制营养的食物),从而可以推断出3D打印出来的食物可以满足个人营养需求。故选B。
49. 细节理解题。根据文章最后一段most of the 3D food printers now are restricted to dry ingredients, because meat and milk products may easily go bad.可知,阻止3D打印食物进一步广泛使用的原因是原料必须是干的,含水多的肉和牛奶不能应用于3D打印因为很容易坏。故选C。
50. 主旨大意题。文章主要介绍了3D打印技术在食物上的应用取得了进展,但目前仍面临着许多方面的挑战。所以用标题3D Food Printing: Delicious New Technology,故选A。
点睛:科普类说明文历来是高考阅读理解命题的重点。本文是一篇3D打印技术在食物方面的应用,文章运用一些小标题和对一些专业词汇作了多处中文注释,降低了考生的阅读难度。文章逻辑性强,条理清楚,主要考查学生对语篇的整体把握和领悟能力以及对特定细节的认读和处理能力。最后一小题考查主旨大意,为文章选择出最好的标题。考生做此题时一定要注意选择项必须要能概括整个文章的内容,不能以偏概全。如B、C、D选择项在文章中都有所涉及,但不足以概括全文,所以需要考生正确概括全文的主旨大意。
D
Give yourself a test. Which way is the wind blowing? How many kinds of wildflowers can be seen from your front door? If your awareness is as sharp as it could be, you’ll have no trouble answering these questions.
Most of us observed much more as children than we do as adults. A child’s day is filled with fascination, newness and wonder. Curiosity gave us all a natural awareness. But distinctions that were sharp to us as children become unclear; we are numb(麻木的) to new stimulation(刺激), new ideas. Relearning the art of seeing the world around us is quite simple, although it takes practice and requires breaking some bad habits.
The first step in awakening senses is to stop predicting what we are going to see and feel before it occurs. This blocks awareness. One chilly night when I was hiking in the Rocky Mountains with some students, I mentioned that we were going to cross a mountain stream. The students began complaining about how cold it would be. We reached the stream, and they unwillingly walked ahead. They were almost knee-deep when they realized it was a hot spring. Later they all admitted they’d felt cold water at first.
Another block to awareness is the obsession(痴迷) many of us have with naming things. I saw bird watchers who spotted a bird, immediately looked it up in field guides, and said, a "ruby-crowned kinglet" and checked it off. They no longer paid attention to the bird and never learned what it was doing.
The pressures of "time" and "destination" are further blocks to awareness. I encountered many hikers who were headed to a distant camp-ground with just enough time to get there before dark. It seldom occurred to them to wander a bit, to take a moment to see what’s around them. I asked them what they’d seen. "Oh, a few birds," they said. They seemed bent on their destinations.
Nature seems to unfold to people who watch and wait. Next time you take a walk, no matter where it is, take in all the sights, sounds and sensations. Wander in this frame of mind and you will open a new dimension to your life.
51. According to Paragraph 2, compared with adults, children are more ________.
A. anxious to do wonders
B. sensitive to others’ feelings
C. likely to develop unpleasant habits
D. eager to explore the world around them
52. What idea does the author convey in Paragraph 3?
A. To avoid jumping to conclusions.
B. To stop complaining all the time.
C. To follow the teacher’s advice.
D. To admit mistakes honestly.
53. The bird watchers’ behavior shows that they ________.
A. are very patient in their observation
B. are really fascinated by nature
C. care only about the names of birds
D. question the accuracy of the field guides
54. Why do the hikers take no notice of the surroundings during the journey?
A. The natural beauty isn’t attractive to them.
B. They focus on arriving at the camp in time.
C. The forest in the dark is dangerous for them.
D. They are keen to see rare birds at the destination.
55. In the passage, the author intends to tell us we should ________.
A. fill our senses to feel the wonders of the world
B. get rid of some bad habits in our daily life
C. open our mind to new things and ideas
D. try our best to protect nature
【答案】51. D    52. A    53. C    54. B    55. A
【解析】本文是一篇散文。我们有多久没有仔细观察我们周围的世界了。作者通过此文要告诉我们:放慢脚步,带着我们所有的感官来感受周围世界的奇妙。
51. 推理判断题。根据文章第二段Most of us observed much more as children than we do as adults. A child’s day is filled with fascination, newness and wonder.可知,与成人相比较,孩子观察得更多,孩子的一天充满了魔力、新奇和惊奇。从而可以推断出孩子更急于探索他们周围的世界。故选D。
52. 推理判断题。根据文章第三段作者叙述在一个寒冷的夜晚,作者和学生徒步旅行穿过一条小溪的时候,学生们抱怨水太冷而不愿往前走,结果事实上那是一个温泉。作者举这样一个事例是为了向读者传递这样的观念:避免过早下结论。故选A。
53. 细节理解题。根据文章第四段全段及首句Another block to awareness is the obsession(痴迷) many of us have with naming things.可知,鸟观察者发现鸟后只关心鸟的名字,并不关心它在做什么。故选C。
54. 细节理解题。根据文章第五段I encountered many hikers who were headed to a distant camp-ground with just enough time to get there before dark. It seldom occurred to them to wander a bit, to take a moment to see what’s around them.可知,徒步旅行者只关心能够及时到达目的地,而很少关心周围的事物。故选B。
55. 推理判断题。文章作者想要通过此文要告诉我们:大自然只展现给那些善于观察和等待的人,带着我们所有的感官来感受周围世界的奇妙吧。故选A。
点睛:本文是一篇散文阅读。整个文章行文自由,不拘一格,对考生来说阅读有一定的难度,但我们只需要抓住贯穿全文的主线:大自然只展现给那些善于观察和等待的人,就不难理解全文大意了。文章多考查细节理解题和推理判断题,考生需要根据文中事实和线索作出判断和推理。
绝密★启用前
2018年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(天津卷)
英语 笔试
第II卷
注意事项:
1. 用黑色墨水的钢笔或签字笔将答案写在答题卡上。
2. 本卷共6小题,共35分。
第三部分:写作
第一节:阅读表达(共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分)
阅读短文,按照题目要求用英语回答问题。
Some people live to climb the highest mountains. Some people live only dreaming about it while others live to avoid ever climbing at all. But one thing is certain, all people encounter mountains in their life.
When I was a little girl, my family moved to a tiny town at the bottom of a big mountain. One day after school, while exploring the green woods of this magnificent mountain, I almost fell on a set of stairs. What could these steps lead to? Curiosity got the best of me as I knew it would be starting to get dark soon. I started climbing up those strangely mysterious steps.
I climbed and climbed. There was nothing but just green bushes and these steps. I had to reach the top! But it was now getting real dark. If I kept going I might not be able to see my way back. My mom would be worried sick if I didn’t come home soon. So I ran back home almost in the dark while trying not to get too scared.
Anxiously I went to bed dreaming about what I would find at the top of this magical mountain. Could there be a castle up there? Maybe I would find a monster(怪物). Maybe I was taking the risk of never coming back home. Or, maybe all I would find was absolutely nothing! But something inside me was going to climb that mountain at all cost. I could hardly wait to try this adventure again.
Now we live in a world surrounded by the "can’t do" attitudes. We all fall down. We all have doubts and regrets. Still we must climb and dream about what’s at the top of our mountain. Monsters may appear or the night will fall. But never ever give up on your dream! Never let anyone tell you, "You can’t." Dream big and climb high!
56. What made the author start to climb up the stairs to the mountain top? (no more than 5 words)
57. Why did the author hurry back home without reaching the top of the mountain? Give two reasons. (no more than 15 words)
58. How would you describe the author in terms of personalities according to Paragraph 4? (no more than 10 words)
59. How do you understand the underlined sentence in the last paragraph? (no more than 5 words)
60. What’s your attitude towards the "mountain" in your life? Please explain. (no more than 20 words)
【答案】56. Curiosity made her do so.
Or:The desire to explore.    
57. Because it was getting dark,and she didn’t want her mother to worry about her.
Or:Because she was seared,and might not be able to find her/the way back home.    
58. She had rich imagination and she was brave.
Or:She was a brave and determined girl with rich imagination.
Or:She was imaginative and determined,and she dared to explore.
Or:She was imaginative,adventurous and determined.    
59. We all sometimes fail.
Or:We face failure/defeat/hardships/challenges in life.
Or:There are difficulties/barriers/obstacles in life.
Or:We run into trouble sometimes.
Or:We have trouble in life.    
60. I will try to reach my goal because I want to live an exciting life.
Or:I will try to reach/get to the top of the“mountain”because I want to be successful in life.
【解析】本文是一篇夹叙夹议短文阅读。作者通过小时候爬山的经历告诉我们:我们每个人在人生中都会遇到很多座山,但我们要勇于梦想,攀登高峰。
56. 细节归纳题。根据文章第二段What could these steps lead to? Curiosity got the best of me as I knew it would be starting to get dark soon. I started climbing up those strangely mysterious steps.可知,好奇心驱使作者探索这些台阶通往什么,从而可以归纳出答案,注意字数的限制。
57. 细节归纳题。根据文章第三段But it was now getting real dark. If I kept going I might not be able to see my way back. My mom would be worried sick if I didn’t come home soon. So I ran back home almost in the dark while trying not to get too scared.可知,作者没有到达山顶而急于回家的原因一共有4个,考生只需要归纳2个原因,注意字数的限制。
58. 细节归纳题。根据文章第四段作者梦见城堡或怪物,可知作者非常具有想象力;根据But something inside me was going to climb that mountain at all cost. I could hardly wait to try this adventure again.可知,作者内心的某些东西会不惜一切代价爬上那座山并迫不及待地想再次冒险,可知作者具有冒险精神并且有决心。根据这些归纳出答案,注意字数的限制。
59. 句意理解题。根据全文我们可以推断出We all fall down.指的是“我们生活中遇到的障碍/困难/失败/挑战等”。由此可以归纳出答案,注意字数的限制。
60. 开放题。首先要理解题干中的mountain指的是“障碍或失败”,并且要陈述自己的理由,注意字数的限制。
点睛:本文是一篇夹叙夹议短文阅读。整体文章易懂,但题目设置灵活,总体难度中等。考生不但要从文章中找出答案,还要根据问题的设置归纳出相应的答案。书写答案的时候,考生要注意语法结构的正确以及字数的限制。
第二节:书面表达(满分25分)
61. 假设你是晨光中学的机器人兴趣小组组长李津,你的美国朋友Chris就读于天津某国际学校,他曾在机器人技能竞赛中获奖。你打算邀请他加入你的团队,参加即将于7月底在天津举行的世界青少年机器人技能竞赛。请根据以下提示代表兴趣小组给他写一封电子邮件。
(1)比赛的时间、地点;
(2)邀请他的原因;
(3)训练计划将发送其邮箱,请他提出建议。
注意:(1)词数不少于100;
(2)可适当加入细节,使内容充实、行文连贯;
(3)开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。
参考词汇:
世界青少年机器人技能竞赛 the World Adolescent Robotics Competition
Dear Chris,
I have good news to tell you. ______________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
I’m looking forward to your reply.
Yours,
Li Jin
【答案】略

点睛:书面表达考查大家所熟悉的提纲类作文,我们需要用正确的英语把给出的要点表达出来。动笔前,一定要认真分析要点,理解要点要表达的含义,不能遗漏要点,跑题偏题。本作文中给出的要点比较具体,故需要准确表达。考生写完之后要检查是否有语法错误,看能否运用所学的知识将简单句变为复杂句,当然,没有把握的句子不要写。





















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